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Ecological (biological) "holism" evolves from the interaction between long-associated organisms (living plants and animals), forming a larger natural system with its own characteristics. Evolutionary processes lead to interactions and behaviour that provide a degree of compatibility (interdependence) between long-associated organisms. A compatible organism exhibits behaviour that reduces its effect upon the habitat or ecosystem upon which its survival depends. If measured as a relative energetic value, increased efficiency would be found. Expressions of holism are found in evolved associations such as the bee and flower.
Atoms do not change their nature in any fundamental or evolutionary sense in the formation of molecules. Subatomic structure does not conform to the whole of ecological (biological) holism. However, with molecules, coevolution is possible, conforming that (non-living) level of organisation to the whole and enabling biological holism. All evolutionary, ecological and biological changes are essentially molecular in origin. Atoms (chemistry) provide constraints to what molecular forms are possible.
At the ecosystem level of organisation, with interdependence and coadaptation found between associated organisms, the mode of biological perpetuation is to be found in the parts, the individual organisms.
Associations of species coevolve so that the animal becomes adapted ("suited") to use the resources of its niche within the ecosystem. In an experiment called Prisoner's Dilemma (Axelrod), that tested interactive models, the interactive process (where elimination was possible) did not lead to survival of the fittest as is generally understood of evolution today, but led to the fittest being those that cooperated. Cooperation implies interdependence. Biotic interactions during the evolutionary process lead to interdependence and symbiosis. A species' formation of territories, instead of being a purely competitive mechanism, is behaviour through which beneficial cooperative behaviour can be expressed. The evolution of cooperation through natural selection requires that successful strategies perpetuate and that there is a source of variation in the strategies employed. This is Darwinian natural selection, with variations provided by genetic mutations.
Much of what Darwin said has holistic flair. He uses his term "struggle for existence" in a "metaphorical sense" "including dependence of one being on another (equated partially with "compatibility" ), and including not only the life of the individual, but success in leaving progeny" (equated with "perpetuity"). We find a more subtle understanding of competition as an interaction in his statement that: "It is good thus to try in our imagination to give any form some advantage over another. Probably in no single instance should we know what to do, so as to succeed. It will convince us of our ignorance on the mutual relations of al organic beings; a conviction as necessary, as it seems to be difficult to acquire." This mutuality leads to compatibility, so Darwin says, "Let it be borne in mind how infinitely complex and close fitting are the mutual relations of all organic beings to each other and to their physical conditions of life." "Thus I can understand how a flower and a bee might become slowly, either simultaneously or one after the other, modified and adapted in the most perfect manner to each other, by the continued preservation of individuals presenting mutual and slightly favourable deviations of structure." Further, "if any one species does not become modified and improved in a corresponding degree with its competitors, it will soon be exterminated."
Darwin emphasises the associations of nature by first noting that "Competition should be most severe between allied forms, which fill nearly the same place in the economy of nature. Its "corollary of the highest importance: That the structure of every organic being (organism) is related, in the most essential yet often hidden manner, to that of all other organic beings, with which it comes into competition.”
Our ancestral way of life involved a diet high in antioxidants. Today’s diets are deficient in such nutrients and we need to consciously boost the intake of antioxidants.
Health-herbal.com looks at herbal and natural dietary solutions to physical health, with an emphasis on antioxidants, functional foods and nutraceuticals in the diet.
It is easy to miss the beauty of Islam in the world of political propaganda. Islamtheism.com opens the door to some of this beauty, revealing the spiritual forces within Islam.
Our physical body has evolved on earth. As such the Holy Quran states,
[76:1]“1. Has there not been over Man a long period of Time, when he was nothing - (not even) mentioned?
2. Verily We created Man from a drop of mingled sperm, in order to try him: So We gave him (the gifts), of Hearing and Sight.
3. We showed him the Way: whether he be grateful or ungrateful.”
The physical evolution of humanity is a fascinating detective story.
We are advised in the Surah called “The Man”,
[29:20] “Say: Travel through the earth and see how Allah originated creation; so will Allah produce the second creation (of the Afterlife): for Allah has power over all things.
Through science, we can “travel through the earth”. What we do find in preponderance are fossils. These are evidence of how Allah originated Creation. While we are subject to time, our Creator is not; therefore we can never comprehend this higher perspective.
This subject became absolutely relevant in 2008. First the fuel price went chaotic and then worldwide markets collapsed in chaotic unpredictability. Economic gurus and heroes became idiots, villains and culprits.
This experimental site has been applying the principles of chaos to interpret and predict share price behaviour, with a fair degree of accuracy.
Ecotao Enterprises cc
Ecotao Enterprises cc
P.O. Box 1524