- abiotic : devoid of life, non-living, usually applied to environmental features. [1: biotic ]
- absolute age : the age of a fossil, artefact (e.g tool), feature, or event, established through an absolute-dating process. Also referred to as chronometric dating. [See introductory article, [2: " DATING TOOLS "] on this site. (e.g. [2: radiometric ] dating). [3: how old is it? ]; [3: age of things ]; [3: relative time scale ]; [3: absolute dates ] [1: dating tools & methods].
- adaptation: In this book adaptation usually refers to evolutionary changes through natural selection that bring an accord between an animal's structure, physiology and behaviour and their habitat ([2: niche ]) or environment. An organism’s environment ([1: biotic ] and abiotic) influences the traits that persist, increase, and spread through a population. Traits perpetuated through reproductive success of the individuals are called adaptations. This is a genetic change that occurs through generations (a historical approach looking at fitness and the process by which adaptation occurred). An individual also has some capacity to adjust to environmental conditions, also termed adaptation. This capacity does not entail a genetic change. As a noun, "an adaptation" refers to a feature (trait, [2: phenotype ], or character) of the organism that is important to survival and reproduction, solely in terms of the current, observed benefits of a specific trait. [3: adaptation ]; [3: adaptation ]; [3: adaptation definitions ];
and ant association. [3 Swollen
- Acheulean : Homo erectus or H. ergaster stone tool technology characterised by the flaked hand axe and cleavers. These tools first appeared about 1.65 to 1.76 (Nature, Sep. 2011) million years ago west of Lake Turkana and spread to Subsaharan Africa and were generally replaced by the middle stone age by about 200,000 years ago. Also found in Central Europe and India.They are bifacial, with a fine cutting edge. The Acheuléen also includes other bifacial cleavers (a bifacial handaxe-like tool with a flat top), and picks (thick elongated trihedral tools). More recent [3: tool traditions (see tool image )] are the [2: Mousterian ] and [2: Upper Palaeolithic ]; more ancient the [2: Oldowan ]. [3: about the acheulean ]; Also spelt acheulean. In Europe, it formed the Lower Palaeolithic tool technology of biface markers until about 100,000 years ago (Bahn, 2001).
the evolution [2: speciation ] of a diverse range of species occupying many habitats and new niches from some single ancestral stock (phyletic line). Long-term associations (interactions) can produce niche diversification, a frequently observed situation in which actual or potential competitors specialize to use slightly different components of the local environment. The one mechanism for this forms the basis of holism described in this book and is the evolution of reduced interactive costs between interactors . DARWIN's 14 species of finches [2:] are an example of this. They evolved from a single species of ground-dwelling, seed-eating finch. [2: back to human evolution ]; [2: back to Argument ]; [2: back to human evolution introduction ]; [3: short tutorial ]; [3: Darwin's Finches ] ; [see books]
- adenine (A, Ade) : a molecule classed as a nitrogenous purine (double ring structure), and found in DNA and other molecules in the body.
- Aegean civilisation: Four cultures flourished between 3000 B.C. and 1200 B.C. These were the Cycladic, Minoan, Mycenaean and Trojan. After the collapse of this civilisation, craft-work skills, the systems of writing and building knowledge were lost (see books).
- Aegyptopithecus : Earliest ape fossil, a small, tree-dwelling, fruit-eating animal .
- Agassiz, Louis : (1807-1873). Naturalist and [2: natural theologian ] who studied modern and fossil fishes and did not accept Darwin's theory of evolution. He said species do not change. He suggested that the earth had gone through 50-80 catastrophies and creations.[3: Agassiz ];
- agriculture : the farming of crops and rearing of animals on a large scale. [3: Emergence of Agriculture ]; [3: image ]
- AL 200-1: Australopithecus species jaw and tooth placement differ to apes and humans. [3: Palate Shapes: gorilla, human and A. afarensis]; [3: AL 200-1 A. afarensis palate];
129-1a/b: A complete knee joint (AL 129-1),
minus the knee
cap (patella), from a single individual was found at Hadar,
showed that the species Australopithecus afarensis walked
upright. [3: detail]
- Albedo : is the fraction of light that is reflected by a body or surface, a term used in astronomy to describe their reflective properties of planets, satellites, and asteroids. Albedo is differentiated into two types, normal albedo and bond albedo. The former, also called normal reflectance, is a measure of a surface's relative brightness when illuminated and observed vertically. The normal albedo of snow, for example, is nearly 1.0, whereas that of charcoal is about 0.04. Bond albedo, defined as the fraction of the total incident solar radiation reflected by a planet back to space, is a measure of the planet's energy balance.[3: Albedo ]; [3: Astrobiology Encyclopedia: Albedo ]">
- al-Ghazali: (?-1111). Islamic scholar and thinker who wrote numerous spiritual books that are still an inspiration to Muslims. His magnum opus is Ihya'al al Uluum [3: al-Ghazali ]
- algorithm : the formal procedure for any mathematical operation.
- allele : one of two forms of a gene found in an individual or of many forms in a population. Many genes may be coding for many different eye colours in a population. Chromosomes that carry the genes are paired, one of the pair from the mother and the other form the father, so alleles are found in pairs. Each gene for a specific eye colour is an allele for that trait [2: Genetics ]. [3: Patterns of inheritance : recessive allele ]; [3: Basic Genetics: What's is an allele? ]; [3: allele in genetics glossary ]; [3: allele in Human genome glossary ]; [3: allele in evolution glossary ]
- [3: All-faiths Press: religions fairly represented at this site ], including, Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islamic, Jainism, Judaism, Shintoism, Sikhism, Taoism, Zoroastrianism and "Various Faiths". ; [2: home ] ; To view a scientific & rational encounter between ideas on human evolution and creationism views, visit [3: The Talk.Origins Archive: Fossil Hominids, The Evidence for Human Evolution ]
The study of the change in proportion of various parts of an
as a consequence of growth. This results from the relative
the different parts of an organism. [3: allometry];
- Allosaurus : A theropod dinosaur of the Jurassic period. It was about 10 metres long.
- amino acid : Organic compounds (molecules) that link to make up proteins. Our body proteins are constructed from combinations of 20 different amino acids (chemical bond images) .[3: amines and amides ]; [3: amino acid ];[3: Amino Acids ]; [3: amino acid symbols ]; [3: basic amino acid chemistry ]; [3: 3-D structure ].
- Amensalism : An interactive association where species A is adversely affected by the presence of another species B, while species B has no effect on species A.
- Amphibian : Vertebrate group including frogs (order Anura), salamanders (order Urodela) [3: amphibian introduction ].
- anaerobic : "without oxygen," usually used in referring to metabolic processes they do not require oxygen. Metabolism refers to the chemical processes within an organism, such as respiration where food molecules are broken down to release energy.
- Anaxiamander of Miletus : 611-547 B.C. Greek philosopher, one of the first proposers of evolution, preferring natural rather than mythological explanations to natural processes. He said human beings evolved from fish. He also believed that fossil fish were once living creatures. [2: Lucretius ]; [2: Lucretius ]
- Andaman Islands : East of Sri Lanka in the Andaman Sea. [3: map ]
- Andes mountains : found on the west coast of South America, stretching 7200 kilometres from Cape Horn to Panama.
- anaemia: deficiency of red blood cells, the oxygen carriers from the lungs to the rest of the body.
- Angel Gabriel : an important angel of Christianity and Islam. Angels are living entities created before humanity.
- Angiosperm : the name given to flowering plants. All our crop plants are angiosperms [3: Introduction to angiosperms ].
- animal husbandry : the science of managing and producing domestic livestock.
- annelid : segmented worms (earthworm), leeches, polychaetes.
- ant : social insect living in organised communities.
- anteater : group of mammals that feed upon ants and termites. The giant anteaters (ant bear) and collared anteaters (Order Edentata) of central and south America are hairy, as is the African aardvark ("earthpig") (Order Tubulidentata). The Echidnas (spiny anteaters) [3: Order Monotremata ] of Australia and New Guinea have spines and hair and lay eggs. Pangolins [3: order Pholidota ] also eat ants and have horny scales that form a protective shield. Pangolins are found in Asia, Indonesia and Africa. Armadillos found in central and south America have hinged rings of armour around their bodies and eat a wider variety of insects.
- antelope squirrel ( Citellus leucurus ): A rodent of the family Sciuridae, a spermophile or ground squirrel living in the Mojave Desert of California [2:].
- antelope : a large group of mammals that have hoofs and hollow horns. They are ruminants, related to goats and oxen.
- anthropoid ape : see Anthropoidea.
- Anthropoidea : suborder of Primates including the monkey, ape and human families (see prosimian).
- anthropology : scientific study of humanity and of human culture. This science includes a study of human physical characteristics, archaeology, languages and linguistics, social structure and social relationships, and cultural practises. See [1: archaeology ] and [2: paleontology ]
- anthropomorphism : attribution of human form or personality to natural or Divine entities.
- ape: common & pygmy chimpanzees (bonobos), gorillas, orang-utans and gibbons. [3: The Great Ape Project - links ]; [3: Cave man at BBC Online ]
- aquaculturist : a person involved in aquaculture, the cultivation of aquatic organisms, such as fish, shell fish, and algae. First practised in China up to 4000 years ago.
- Arabia : Southwestern Asia, also called the Arabian Peninsula, today mostly Saudi Arabia.
- Arabian Sea : part of the Indian Ocean between the Arabian Peninsula and India.
- Aramaic : the mother tongue of Jesus, a Semitic language of the Middle East, first spoken around 900 B.C. Assyrian Christians in isolated parts of Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria still speak this language.
- Archaeology : scientific study of the remains of past human cultures to establish how we lived. Archaeologist, rely on remains left by ancient cultures to establish early lifestyles. This includes all aspects of human cultures such as clothing, art, tools, and other artefacts, food remains such as seeds and bones (ecofacts) and features such as architectural design of buildings. See also [1: anthropology ] and [2: palaeontology ] ; [3: by subject such as historical archaeology ] [2: Human Evolution ]; [3: archaeology glossary ];
- Archbishop of Armagh : Chief bishop of a district of Northern Ireland.
- Archean : Archaean aeon, one of four major time divisions of the Earth's history, covering the period 3.8 to 2.5 billion years ago [3: Archean ]; [2: archean ]; [3: Archean intro ].
- Archaeopteryx bird : a genus of early bird that lived 140 million years ago (late Jurassic Period). Although it had feathers, it had a reptile-like skeleton, including teeth and a long feathered tail.[3: Archaeopteryx ], [3: Archaeopteryx ] . Two other creatures on the bird/dinosaur transition are Protarchaeopteryx (with more primitive, symmetrical feathers, but dated at 120 million years old) and Caudipteryx zoui (Time, July 6, 1998). Caudipteryx had feathers, but appears to be a flightless, speedy runner (Ackerman et al, 1998). Another species, nearly as old as Archaeopteryx, but better adapted to flying, and with more modern features such as lighter bones, a shorter tail (and a practically modern jaw) is Confuciusornis sanctus , an apparently gregarious bird. Other species such as Sinosauropteryx prima [2: image ](a theropod) are on an early branch linking dinosaurs and birds. 100 million years ago birds (Gansus yumenensis) were likely aquatic and similar to modern birds. Dated at about 110 million years ago, G. yumenensis is the oldest representative of the group Ornithurae, which includes all modern birds and their closest extinct relatives. [ 2: Image of Archaeopteryx fossil ][ ©3 ];[3: All about ];
- Arctic tundra : a treeless region of the north pole between the ice cap and tree line, with frozen soil and low vegetation.
- Ardipithecus species: earliest hominid, thought to be 4.4 to 5.8 million years old. A. ramidus was bipedal. This species has two species, the more ancient Ardipithecus kadabba , with fossil remains fated at between 5.6 and 5.8 million years old, and Ardipithecus ramidus, at a more recent 4.4 million years old. [3: Ardipithecus kadabba ]; [3: A. ramidus ]; [2: Ardipithecus ]
- Aristotle : 384-322 B.C. Greek [3: philosopher ] who greatly influenced Western Culture. He was a student of Plato. Aristotle wrote the Scala Naturae (Ladder of Life), to explain the idea that living things advance from inanimate matter to plants, then animals and finally man.[3: Aristotle ] [3: Aristotle ];
- arithmetic : the science of numbers or the art of calculation.
- Arizona : a state in the Southwestern United States.
- arthropod: Includes arachnids (spiders, mites) insects (bee, ant, moth) and crustaceans (shrimp, crab), as a group under Phylum Arthropoda, all invertebrates (no vertebral column), having segmented bodies and hollow, jointed legs. [3: Introduction to arthropods ].
- artifact : human-made or modified objects, often applied to portable objects.
- arquebus (e): same as Harquebus, an early handgun, loaded through the muzzle with black powder and a round bullet. It was simply a metal tube attached to a wooden handle.
- Asia : the largest continent, both in size and population, including 49 countries. Asia is divided into southwest Asia, South Asia (India), Southeast Asia, East Asia (mostly China), north Asia and central Asia.
- Asia minor : now Turkey, peninsula of western Asia between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea.
- Assyria : the ancient country (1300 B.C.) of the upper Tigris river in Mesopotamia (present day Iraq). By 600 B.C., the Assyrian Empire included the whole of the region around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the coastal region of the Mediterranean from Asia Minor to Egypt and the Nile River valley up to Thebes.
- asteroid : small, rocky bodies orbiting the sun. Many are found in orbit between Mars and Jupiter. [2: comet ]; [2: meteorite ]
- astronomer : one who studies astronomy, the study of the stars, planets, and other objects of the universe.
- atom : basic unit of matter. Water is made up of molecules with two hydrogen atoms linked to an oxygen atom.
- Australoid : members of the racial group including the Australian aborigines.
- Australopithecus : Extinct ancestral primate genus on the human lineage, the "southern ape". Australopithecine, various species, Australopithecus boisei , [3: A. afarensis ; detail ; Hadar Teeth ; A.L. 288-1 (Lucy); A.L. 333-105 ; A.L. 444-2 ; MAK-VP 1/1 ; A.L. 129-1A and A.L. 129-1B leg joint ; L.H.-4 jaw ] and [3: A. ramidus ; tooth ; detail ] [3: A. boisei skull ]; A. boisei skull frontal view ]. A variety of [2: features ] place this species on the evolutionary line leading to humanity. [2: australopithecus ]. [3: Pictures of Australopithecus fossils ]; [3: Australopithecus afarensis ]; [3: A. africanus ]; [3: A. anamensis 1 - 2 ; jaw KNM-KP 29281 ; jaw KNM-KP 29283 ; tibia ]; [3: A. bahrelghazali ; jaw KT12/H1 ] See also [2: Paranthropus .], [3: A. gahri ; BOU-VP-12/130 ]. [3: A. gahri ]; [3: A. afarensis ]; [3: A. africanus ]; [3: A. anamensis ]; [3: A. garhi ]. The term "australopithecine", the vernacular for Australopithecinae, the subfamily established by Gregory & Hellman (1939) for the fossils we now allocate to Ardipithecus, Australopithecus and Paranthropus , no longer applies. We use "australopiths" to refer to members of the subtribe Australopithecina.
- avocado : a fruit that grows on an evergreen tree, native to Central and South America.
- [ b]
- Babylon : city, capital of ancient Babylonia and of two Babylonian Empires, situated between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, on the banks of the Euphrates. Earliest record of Babylon, 2200 B.C. [2: Compatibility ]
- Bacon : Francis (1561-1626) English philosopher. Promoted empirical and scientific methods. He believed preliminary hypotheses were needed to aid investigations and that the inductive method led to the truth:  list all known cases in which a given phenomenon occurs;  list all cases where the phenomenon does not occur;  list instances where the phenomenon occurs in differing degrees;  examine all 3 lists and find a common factor or element present when a phenomenon occurred. This element would be the causative factor. [3: Bacon ]
- bacteria : simple one celled organisms, very common, with some causing disease. Four basic kinds of bacteria are cocci, bacilli, vibrios and spirilla [3: bacteria ]; [3: bacteia ].
- bamboo : a type of giant grass, quite primitive and with about 700 species.
- banana : tropical fruit that originated in Asia.
- barley : cereal grain that grows well in temperate climates. Barley was one of the first cultivated cereals, grown in Egypt and the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East up to 7000 years ago.
- bat : flying mammals, [3: order Chiroptera. ];
- bean : several related plants of the pea family.
- bear : a mammal of the order Carnivora, family Ursidae.
- Berkeley , George: 1685- 1753. An Anglican bishop & philosopher who tried to reconcile science & religion (Christianity). [3: Berkeley ].
- Bhagavad-Gita: As It Is, editor, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Prabhupada; [3: Bhagavad-gita Online ]
- big bang : The big-bang theory of cosmology that proposes that 10 to 20 billion years ago there was an explosion of some initial state of extreme density and temperature, producing all matter and radiation in the universe. [2: big-bang ]; [3: Cosmic Electrodynamic Mode: alternative to big bang theory ]; [2: big bang, yin & yang ]; [3: bigbang science ]; [3: From the Big Bang to the Present ]
- biochemistry: [ 3 ];
- Biocomplexity: The study of the complex
properties and behaviors that arise (emerge) from the
(interplay) (interrelationships) of biological entities
cells, or organisms). This includes behavioral,
chemical, physical, and social interactions that affect,
are modified by living organisms, including humans. While
chemical processes give rise to a great variety of spatial and
structures, the complexity of even the simplest biological
infinitely richer. [3: Defining
biocomplexity ]; [3: Biocomplexity
network ]; [3: biocomplexity
document ]; [3: Browse
the Biocomplexity Thesaurus
] ; [3: Knowledge
for Biocomplexity ]; [3: publications
]; [3: Course
]; [3: Evolutionary
and Biocomplexity ]; [3: Workshop
- biodiversity : the diversity of life in all its forms and organisation that comprise the natural world. Diversity includes genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity (see overview below). For an audio and visual example of life's diversity go to [3: Biodiversity glossaries online ]; [3: glossary ]; [3: biodiversity glossary ]; [3: World Resources Institute ]; [3: BIODIVERSITY SERVERS ]; [3: Online Biodiversity Web Encyclopedia of Biodiversity ]; [3: Ecology, Biodiversity & the Environment ]; [3: People and Biodiversity ]; [3: The Roles of Biodiversity in Creating and Maintaining the Ecosphere ]
- biogeography : scientific study of the geographic distribution of organisms [3: biogeography ].
- biomass : total mass of living organisms within a specified area.
- biosphere: The biosphere is the world's ecological system. It is the living part of the earth that is ordered by the dynamic flow of energy into complex systems. The energy source for this is the sun, via the photosynthetic processes. [3: The Biosphere: Life on Earth ]
- biotechnology: the adaptation and application of biological processes to commercial and industrial use to supply human needs. This application can range from artificial genetic manipulation to the slight modification of natural systems. [3: biotechnology ]; [3: FAO glossary of biotechnology and genetic engineering ];[3: AN AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY ANNOTATED DICTIONARY ];
- biotic : living, organic component of a creature's environment. [1: abiotic ]
- bipedal : walking on two feet, bipedalism.[3: Origin of Bipedalism ], [3: Origin of Bipedalism ],[2: efficiency of bipedalism ], [3: Human Evolution: Bipedalism ]
- Boltzman, Ludwig : (1844-1906). An Austrian theoretical physicist who founded statistical mechanics. He also worked on the kinetic theory of gases and a statistical analysis of the second law of thermodynamics.
- Boole : G. (1815-1864), British mathematician, developed algebra called Boolean Algebra, used in logic, probability and engineering [3: Boole ].
- Borneo : third largest island in the world, after Greenland and New Guinea.
- boson : one of three major families of subatomic and elementary particles. The other two are leptons and quarks. Bosons are characterised by having whole number units of intrinsic spin (measured, using [2: Planck's constant ] divided by 2Pi.). If a particle is not a boson, then it is a [2: fermion .]; [2: boson ]
- Broca's area : an area of the cerebral cortex of the brain involved in speech articulation.
or B.P. Before present, whereas BC is year 0, or "before
Generally, I avoid the BC term as it is a convenience limited
single culture. The present in "BP" is defined as 1950
2003). Before being aware of this definition (i.e.
simply added 2000 years to a BC date, so, based on Mithen's
definition some of my estimates may be out by 50 years.
- Brontosaurus : a dinosaur ancestor to the Sauropods, living in the early Jurassic.
- Brundtland Commission : The World Commission on Environment and Development of the United Nations was created in December 1983, with Mrs. Gro Harlem Brundtland as Chairperson of the Commission. The final report was "Our Common Future", issued in April 1987 (Maunder, 1992).
- Buffon : Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788). French naturalist of the 1700's with evolutionary ideas. He proposed that species could change. In his Historie Naturelle , a 44 volume encyclopedia describing everything known about the natural world, he talked about a common ancestry to Man and apes. Some say, " Buffon had no concept of evolution, believing that species are fixed. " Others claim, " Buffon certainly developed an early theory of micro-evolution, particularly in regard to human variation. But he never actually advanced a theory of macro-evolution. Buffon proposes it occasionally, and invariably goes on to reject it. " About the organic evolution of one species into another, Cuvier stated, "nevertheless the number of improbabilities involved makes it utterly unbelieveable." [3: Buffon ]; [3: Buffon ]; [3: Buffon ];
- bumblebees : (Bombus), social insects, order Hymenoptera, family Apidae, subfamily Bombinae.
- Burgess Shale : a Rock formation with many animal fossils from the Cambrian Period (590 to 505 BP). This formation is in British Colombia, Canada.[3: National Museum of Natural History's Paleobiology Website ]
- Bushman : San people of Africa, speaking Khoisan. Hunter gatherers, with no domestic animals or crops.
- [ c]
- C14 c-14: carbon 14
see carbon dating below.
- Cain and Able : sons of Adam in the Christian Bible/Torah/Holy Quraan.
- calculus : A branch of mathematics. [3: lessons, study guides ] A formal set of (mathematical) rules of a language applied to changing quantities to determine the result (value) of its (arithmetical) functions. Two main branches are differential calculus, and integral calculus. Differential calculus determines the rate of change of a quantity, while integral calculus finds the quantity where the rate of change is known. "Functions" are defined by a formula.
- Cambrian period : of Paleozoic Era, 590-505 Mya BP. [2: TABLE OF THE GEOLOGICAL TIME SCALE ]; [3: Cambrian ] The [3: Tommotian (530 to 527 mya)] is sometimes included within this period .
- Camel : family Camelidae, with two species, the Arabian camel, Camelus dromedarius (a one-humped dromedary) and the Bactrian camel, C. bactrianus (two humps). Hybrids have one lo+ng hump.
- Canines : pair of upper
permanent teeth ]
- Carbon dating : The atmosphere contains three carbon isotopes: 12C, 13C and 14C. The difference between these carbon atoms is in the number of neutrons in each (6,7,8 respectively). The body of a living animal contains these carbon atoms in the same ratio as found in the atmosphere in which they live(d). 14C however decays, while the other two atoms are stable isotopes of carbon, so with time the ratio between these isotopes changes. Measurements of the ratio of 12C to 14C are accurate to about 42,000 years ago (Mithen, 2003), but also need to be calibrated against other dating tools, as the concentration of 14C has declined over time. A very accurate calibration too is dendrochronology (tree-ring dating). For earlier dates, uranium-thorium dating is used. See also [2: Radiocarbon dating].
- Carboniferous period : of the Paleozoic era, 360-286 Mya. This is the beginning of the age of reptiles. The Mississippian and Pennsylvanian Periods are also terms used for the [2: Carboniferous Period ]; [3: Carboniferous ].
- carboxylic acids : [3: carboxylic acids ]
- caribou : French-Canadian name for large North American deer with large antlers. Family Cervidae. A subspecies of the Reindeer, Rangifer tarandus .
- carrier pigeon : Columba livia , descendent of European rock dove.
- carrying capacity : maximum number of a species that the environment can sustain. Ecologists define 'carrying capacity' as the population of a given species that be supported indefinitely in a defined habitat without permanently damaging the ecosystem upon which it is dependent. [3: CARRYING CAPACITY NETWORK]; [3: ecological footprint]; [3: economic carrying capacity]; [3: wikipedia]; [3: reference list]; [3: reference list 2]; [3: Ecological Footprint]; [3: ecological]; [3: economic]; [3: ]; [3: ];
- Cartesian : philosophy of Rene Descartes.
- Catarrhine : a member of the anthropoid primate group including Old World Monkeys (Cercopithecoidea), apes and human family.[3: Catarrhines ]
- Caucasian : one of the human races, typically with lightly pigmented skin. Caucasoid race.
- Cave Art : [3: Cave and rock art galleries ]
- cedar : evergreen trees of the cypress family and the pine family.
- cell : basic units of life and the smallest unit that can function independently. The simplest organisms are made up of one cell. Larger multicellular plants and animals have specialised cells organised into tissues. Cells are generally 10 to 30 microns in size. Robert Hooke (1665) first called the holes in a slice of cork cells. [2: Genetics chapter on history of cell discovery ]; [3: "cells alive" ]; [3: Basic Unit of Life ]; [3: cell structure and function (organelles) ]
- Celt : people speaking the Celtic languages of Breton, Cornish, Irish, Welsh and Scottish Gaelic. These form a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
- Cenozoic Era : of the Phanerozoic Era, 65 Mya to
Cenozoic Era ] This Era is subdivided into the
Quaternary (1.8 mya
to today), Holocene (11,000 years ago to today), Pleistocene
to 11,000 years ago), Tertiary (65 to 1.8 mya), Pliocene (5 to
mya), Miocene (23 to 5 mya), Oligocene (38 to 23 mya), Eocene
(54 to 38
mya), Paleocene (65 to 54 mya). [3:
intro ]. The Pleistocene and Holocene are
separated by a
rapid rise in temperature 12,000 years ago that
true end of the last ice age and a period of relative warmth
- centipedes : Segmented insect with a pair of legs on each segment.
- Cercopithecoidea : primate superfamily of the Old World Monkeys. Members of catarrhine anthropoids, together with the hominoid superfamily. Includes the families Cercopithecidae and Colobidae.
- cereal : wheat, oats, maize, rice, barley, buckwheat and other cereal grain.
- chamoi : a bovid, family Bovidae, also called the goat antelope. Lives in high mountains of Europe and Western Asia.
- chaos theory : a new field of science, chaos science, that investigates the behaviour of complex systems (such as the weather) and randomness (the way smoke eddies and curls) in nature. Chaos can be defined a randomness (unpredictable sequence of events). Chaos theory looks for common principles to different kinds of irregularity. One such principle is that small events have enormous consequences. In complex systems, this translates into an extreme dependence upon initial conditions (Ferguson, 1994). [2: Chaos & Complexity ]; [3: Complexity & Artificial Life Research Concept for Self-Organizing Systems ]; [3: Cornell: chaos & complexity ]; See [1: complexity theory ].
- cheetah : [3: Acinonyx jubatus ]; African cat species. Their main habitat is open grassland and woodland savanna. Prey is mostly medium-sized antelopes, such as gazelle and impala.The cheetah is mostly a diurnal hunter, so not competing with nocturnal lions and hyhaenas. Females are solitary wanderers, covering areas of up to 1500m 2 . Males are territorial (often in clalitions of 2 or 3), with ranges of 37.4 km 2 in the Serengeti and larger where the prey is more sparse, such as in Namibia. Males without territories are often nomadic and have a larger home range (777m 2 in the Serengeti). Gestation lasts 90 to 98 days, and females give birth to an average of 3 to 5 cubs. Cubs are independent after an average of 18 months. Females can conceive after 24 months and males are sexually mature after 12 months. In East Africa, about 1 cub in 20 survives, the rest being lost to predators such as lions, fires, and exposure or abandonment when food is scarce.
- chemistry: [3: chemical basis for life ]
- chimpanzee : [3: fact sheet ];
- Chiroptera : Bats are divided into two groups or taxa, the small insect eating Microchiroptera and the Megachiroptera (fruitbats and flying foxes of the tropical forests) [1: bats ]; [3: Systematics ]
- chloroplast : found in plant cells. A structure termed an organelle and serves as the site of photosynthesis. They contain the green pigments that absorb energy from light.
- chordate : large and ancient phylum that includes lancelets and vertebrates. Phylum Chordata.
- chromatin materia l: a DNA-protein complex that form eukaryotic chromosomes.
- chromosome : found in the nucleus of the cell and made of the [2: nucleic ] acid [1: DNA ] and [2: protein .] called chromatin. It contains the [2: genetic ] code that is transmitted when the sperm and egg combine to form a new organism. Small units on the chromosomes, called [2: genes ], determine the hereditary characteristics, such as eye colour, leaf shape etc. of the organism. [2: Genetics chapter on chromosomes ]; [3: chromosome number of various species ]; [3: what are telomeres? ]; [3: see human chromosmes (left) and chimpanzee chromosomes (right) ( ref )] [3: chromosomes of human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and organgutan ]
- Chambers, Robert (1802 - 1871). In 1844, he wrote the book called Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. There was a public outcry at ideas that did not conform to biblical doctrine. Evolution proposed that humans were descended from apes! [3: Chambers ]
- Churchill: Sir Winston (1874-1965), Prime Minister of Great Britain during World War II.[3: Winston Churchill , website ]
- cichlid : a type of fish.
- civilisation : [3: overview of civilisation - Ancient world [Civilization, The Dawn of] [Civilizations, The Earliest], [Civilization, An Overview] ]; [3: Science and technology ]
- clade : A group of species with a common ancestral species. Cladistics is then a system of classification based on the chronology (sequential order) in which the branches (clades) emerge within a phylogenetic tree. Cladistic [2:] speciation (called cladogenesis) is where an ancestral species diverges into two or more new species. A graph called a cladogram is a phylogenetic tree using this method.[2: Anagenetic speciation ]
- Classical biology : quoted from Worster, 1994, p23. He in turn is quoting Barry Commoner, whose two books are: "The closing circle: nature, man and technology." New York, 1971, and "Science and Survival". New York, 1966.
- Classification : Structured, reasoned and largely scientific [2: taxonomy ] ways of identifying and naming organisms, usually on the basis of their evolutionary relationship [2: systematics ]. [3: CLASSIFICATION AND PHYLOGENY ]; [3: PHYLOGENY software programs ]; [3: Teaching Documents about Classification and Phylogeny ]; [3: Introduction to the Principles of Taxonomy with a Focus on Human Classification Categories ]
- cleidoic egg : egg of a terrestrial animal, such as a bird or lizard, enclosed within a protective shell.[3: The Amniotic Egg ]
- climate :
- club-mosses : Lycopodiales, order of Pteridophyta plants. Present in the fossil record back until the Paleozoic.[3: Introduction to the Lycophyta: Club mosses and Scale trees ]
- coadaptation : In this book coadaptation refers to the reciprocal adaptations that are found between long-associated species that have coevolved. The interactors possess traits that have evolved together, such as beak length in a bird and flower shape.
- coatimundis : or coati, is a relative of the raccoon. It is found from Arizona in the US to Argentina.[3: What's a Coatimundi? [3: Coatis ]
- Cocos Island : in Indian Ocean, 2768 km northwest of Perth, Australia.
- codon : three adjacent bases on a DNA or RNA strand that encode for one of the 20 amino acids.
- coelenterates : soft-bodied water animals such as jellyfish, corals and sea anemones.
- coevolution : reciprocal evolution of two or more interacting species. This requires long association and the [1: evolution] of interacting species. The bee and the flower are two highly coevolved species showing a high degree of interdependence. Reciprocal selective forces result in the evolution of one species affecting the selective forces upon the other species (change in the genetic composition of one species (or group) in response to a genetic change in another.). [2: home] ;[3: coevolution |1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 |]
- comet : A body moving through our solar system that has an icy nucleus. Solar wind (radiation pressure) directs the tail of gas and dust away from the sun.[2: asteroid ]; [2: meteorite ];
- cooperation: [3: Co-operation ];
- Colinvaux, Paul . Author of "Why big fierce animals are rare" (1978), noting that "Natural selection designs different kinds of animals and plants so that they avoid competition. A fit animal is not one that fights well, but one that avoids fighting altogether."
- collagen : the protein
(organic) part of bone and cartilage. Bone has mostly a
carbonate component. It can be dated by the C-14 method and
[2: ratios of C-13 ] can tell
us about an
animals diet, a method termed [
isotopic analysis ].
- Colobid : family Colobidea and Old World monkey of the superfamily Cercopithecoidea. Other family is Cercopithecidae.
- Columbus, Christopher (1451-1506): Seaman and navigator said to have discovered America.
- Commensalism : An interactive association of two species where one benefits in some way, while the other species is in no way affected by the association.
- Community : An association of species with interdependent ecological functions and dynamics.
- compatibility : evolves through natural selection as a result of interactions of long-associated species due to the selective advantage of reduced interactive effects. It implies that the interspecific interactions are no more costly than intraspecific interactions and may be beneficial. Its diversity of expression is like the diversity of nature. [2: Compatibility ]
- compatible : interactive status of two species that are at best beneficial to one another and at least, have interactive costs on average less than intraspecific interactions.
- competition : an interactive association between two or more species, where the presence of each is detrimental to the other in some way. This may be reflected in increased death rates, or decreased growth or birth rates. [3: Competition ]; [3: Competition of Two Populations in Exponential Growth ];
- competition coefficient : a factor in the Lotka-Volterra interspecific competition model that reflects of one species upon another.
- complexity theory : a new mathematical science/theory that studies the behaviour of complex systems to establish the rules of such behaviour. Complexity Theory is the study of emergent behaviour of interacting systems operating in the realm of stability (order) near chaos. Chris Lucas: "Randomly started systems force themselves, by system dynamics, to the parameters giving the greatest diversity and emergent order - we call it the 'Edge of Chaos'." Mathematical models never fully predict the outcome of complex systems (also called nonlinear systems) as small inaccuracies or omissions send the model's results on a different course to the real world event (weather predictions are an excellent example). In complex systems, we need to rely on probability statements (statistical) about how likely or unlikely a particular occurrence in a complex system might be. [3: Emergent Behaviour in Biological Systems ]; [3: Calresco.org ]; [2: Lotka Volterra model ]; [3: Cybernetics, Systems Theory and Complexity ]; [3: Stuart Kauffman's Home page ]; see [1: chaos ]
- Confucianism : originated 500 B.C., with the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It remained an important influence in Chinese culture from 100 B.C. until A.D. 1900.
- Confucius (551?-479? B.C.): see Confucianism.
- conifer : Cone-bearing trees and shrubs such as fir and cypress that originated more than 300 million years ago.
- Constantinople: Istanbul.
- Copernicus, Nicolaus (1473-1543): Polish astronomer, founder of modern astronomy, established the earth as a moving planet in "On the revolutions of heavenly spheres" (1543). Called the Copernican Theory, it stated that the earth revolved around the sun.[2: Kepler ]; [1: Copernicus ]; [2: Hubble ]; [2: Newton ]; [2: Herschel ]; [2: Galileo ]; [1: Einstein ]
- copyright: Some online sites have generously allowed me to use their images on my site. These are referenced, using a numbered copright listing that links to references for the various sites at the file copy.htm . For example ©1 links to the below referenced example site. [ The Copyright Management Centre ]; [3: FAQ ]; [3: What is ]; [3: BERNE CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF LITERARY AND ARTISTIC WORKS]
- ©1: [3: Paleontologisk Museum ] ; This has a great 3D Fossil Gallery where you can go on an online guided tour.
- corn: see [2: maize .]; [3: maize and corn ]
- Cosmology : study of the structure, nature, dynamics and evolution of the universe, as a branch of astronomy;
- convergent evolution :
convergent evolution ]
- Creationism : Scientific creationism is a school of thought and belief opposed to evolution and supported within many religious groups. It believes in a much younger creation and that all species persist basically unchanged; [2: Creationism ]; [2: natural theology ]; [3: Creation Science home page ]; [3: Technical/In-depth Papers ]; [3: Creationism? ]
- Cretaceous Period : Geological term for the "youngest" period of the Mesozoic era, lasting from about [2: 145 million to about 65 million years ago ]; [3: Cretaceous ].
- Crete : Greek island in the Mediterranean sea.
- Cro-Magnon man : humans who lived in Europe, Asia and North Africa between 35,000 and 8,000 B.C ., named after the Cro-Magnon cave in South-Western France. [3: Hominid Evolution Survey ]; [3: Ice Ages ];
- crossopterygian : lobe-finned fishes, the Crossopterygii, are bony fishes with lobe-formed, paired fins and a robust skeleton.[3: Lobe-finned fishes ]; [3: showcase ]; [3: image ]
- cultures : For discussions on culture see [3: "What is culture?" ]; [3: quotes on culture ]; [3: definitions & more definitions & baseline definition ]
- cuneiform : writing system of the ancient Middle Eastern civilisations. The oldest is from about 3000 B.C. and was in use in the lower Tigris-Euphrates valley. Cuneiform was still in use in A.D. 75.
- Cuvier, Baron (1769-1832): French naturalist, specialised in comparative anatomy and a founders of palaeontology (study of fossils). Cuvier advanced the classification system of Linnaeus by grouping related classes into phyla for living and extinct animals. He was a founder of catastrophism - the theory that the earth and geological events had formed suddenly, as a result of some great catastrophe, such the Biblical Noah's flood. He said creations occurred after such catastrophes. Cuvier did not believe in organic evolution (animals did not evolve over time) but established the fact of the extinction of past lifeforms. [ 3: Earth Sciences ]; [3: Georges Cuvier ]; [2: Human Evolution ]; [3: Cuvier ]; [3: Cuvier ]
- cyanobacteria: blue-green algae, prokaryotic photosynthesisers. Phylum Cyanonta.
- cycad : a short palm-like plant (gymnosperm).
- cycadeoid : an extinct plant (gymnosperm)
- cytochrome : iron containing proteins, involved in respiration and photosynthesis.
- cytology: The study of cells and how they function. [3: Cytology links ]. This subject needs to be understood before genetics can be studied. Topics include Cell Structure and Function, The Nucleus, Cell division, Protein Synthesis, Cytology Resources.
- cytosine : one of the bases of DNA and RNA. It pairs with guanine.
- [ d]
- Dalton , John: He proposed in 1808 that [3: matter consists of atoms ].
- Darwin , Charles: (1809-1882). Author of the book [3:" On the Origin of Species - search for "Darwin"  ; 2 ]] by means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life" (1859). He introduced his theories of evolution through a process called natural selection [2:]. He showed that in the struggle for life, including the search for food and mates, some individuals had traits that improved survival and reproductive success. These traits are inherited, so the offspring may express features and characteristics that were successful within the environment that the parents occupied. [3: Darwin ]; [3: Darwin ]; [3: literature.org- Origin of Species ]; [3: A Catholic response ]; [ 2 : Darwin photo ]; [3: Charles Darwin ]; [3: Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection ]; [3: Darwin biography ] .[3: Collection of Darwin and Darwiniana brief comment on books of Darwin's time]
- Darwin , Erasmus: (1731-1802). Charles Darwin's grandfather. In the late 1700's, he proposed that life had changed over time. [3: E. Darwin ];
- da Vinci: Leonardo (1452-1519). He made some relevant geological and paleontological observations. [3: da Vinci ];
- dating tools and methods: Numerous sites handle this topic in great depth. See also, [1: absolute age: ], [2: " DATING TOOLS "] on this site. (e.g. [2: radiometric ] dating). [3: Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale ]; [3: emuseum dating techniques]; [3: dating the past ]; [3: scientific dating methods ]; [3: ISTAT dating methods ]; [3: RADIOCARBON & TREE-RING DATING ]; [3: Geochronology ];
- Dawkins, Richard: (1941 - ). Biologist and author of the book, "The Selfish Gene". Dawkins opposed ideas of a self-regulating [2: Gaia ] proposed by Lovelock. [3: Dawkins ].
- deep ecology : The central idea of Deep Ecology is that humanity forms a part of ecosystems, rather than apart and separate from them. [1: ecology ]; [3: What is Deep Ecology? ]
- Democritus : (460?-370? B.C.), Greek philosopher who said that the world was made of an infinite number of atoms. [3: Democritus ]
- demographic : demography, the study of human populations and factors such as age, number, sex ratio etc.
counting the yearly growth
rings in the cross sections of cut trees to find the age of
commonly called tree-ring dating. A continuous sequence
has been established for the past 11,000 years. (Kromer &
1993), (Kromer & Spurk, 1998). Earlier dates require other
tools such as paired radiocarbon uranium-thorium dates
- Descartes, Rene (1596-1650): French philosopher, mathematician and scientist. He said the world consisted of two basic substances, matter and spirit. [3: "Discourse on the Method" ]; [3: Descartes ]; [3: Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Seeking Truth in the Sciences ]
- detritus feeder : an animal that feeds upon dead organic matter.
- Devonian period : of the Paleozoic Era, 408 to 360 Mya. Fish species evolved during this period.[3: Devonian ]
- diatom : single-celled photosynthetic algae with brown pigments and cell walls of silica.
- differential survival, differential fitness : see [2: natural selection ]
- Dias : Diaz: Bartholomew (1450?-1500), Portuguese sea captain and explorer.
- Dimetrodon : carnivorous pelycosaurs of the late Permian, 270 Mya. They had large spined sails on their backs.
- dinosaurs : fossil reptile, Orders Saurischia and Ornithischia. [3: dinosaur ]; [3: Tyrannosauridae ]; [3: Tyrannosaurus rex ];
- diurnal : of the day, not nocturnal, active in daytime.
- diversity: this term is used as in the term biodiversity to refer to the great variety of life that exists today. This diversity can be looked upon as genetic diversity within a species, the diversity of species upon the earth and the diversity of ecosystems. [3: Diversity of Life Web Index ];
- divine revelation : word of God transmitted via His Prophets.
- DNA : deoxyribonucleic acid, the compound that forms part of the chromosomes of the nucleus and is the material of inheritance, containing genetic information [2: genetic code ]. DNA is a [2: nucleic acid ], a complex organic molecule that forms a long spiraling chain. ]; [3: DNA ]; [3: the discovery of the structure of DNA (image) by James D. Watson and Francis Crick in 1953 .]; [3: DNA from the beginning ]; [3: Genetics ]; [3: image of DNA molecule ]; [2: mitochondrial DNA ];[3: tutorial on DNA ];
- Dobzhansky, Theodosius : A Russian Naturalist. From 1937 to 1975 he wrote 43 papers titled "The Genetics of Natural Populations". He also wrote "Genetics and the Origin of Species" in 1937.
- dragonfly: The dragonfly is a very primitive insect. that undergoes incomplete metamorphosis as part of their life-cycle. They lay their eggs in water and hatch into larvae, which become nymphs in the water. Nymphs predate on various forms of aquatic life. The largest known dragonfly, Meganeura lived in the Carboniferous period (362.5 to 290 million years ago) and had a 60 to 90 cm wingspan.
- Drosophila : fruit fly or banana fly widely used in genetical research.
- Dryopithecus, dryopithecines : a hominoid primate of the Miocene, found mainly in Europe.
- [ e]
- E-meter : Hubbard Electrometer, an electronic instrument for measuring the mental state and change of state in individuals
- earwigs : an insect with a large pair of pincers at the rear of its body.
- Easter Island : found in the South Pacific Ocean.
An organism's survival within a stable or long established
determined by the extent of its coevolution with the whole
is termed an organisms ecofitness. An ecofit organsim will
within a stable ecosystem without significantly changing the
or dynamics of the ecosystem. Conversely, the removal of that
from the persistent ecosystem will bring about a change to or
the structure or dymanics of the ecosystem until coevolutiuon
the whole system to the change.
- ecological imperative : activities, behaviour or lack of action essential to ecological stability, species survival and holistic organisation.
- ecology : science of the relationship living things have to each other (biological environment) and to their physical environment. The German biologist Ernst Heinrich Haeckel introduced the term "ecology" in 1866. It is derived from the Greek oikos ("household"). The term incorporates the study of the economy of nature. Ecology, with an evolutionary component began with Charles Darwin's theories. Adaptation of organisms to the whole environment through natural selection is a necessary part of ecology. [3: population ecology ]; [3: population ecology ]; [3: Environmental Community ]; [3: Ecological Society of America ]; [3: DEFINING ECOLOGY ]; [3: ecology ]
- economics : the social science dealing with the production and exchange of goods and services.
- ecophysiology : the science of how human, animal
plant populations (whole organisms, species and communities)
relation to environmental constraints. Complementing
population and evolutionary studies or fields of
ecophysiology integrates behavioural and physiological
- ecopsychology: [3: Bioregionalism and Ecopsychology ]; [3: definition ]
- ecosystem : an association of organisms adapted to a specific environment, forming "the smallest self-contained ecological unit of function." Within ecosystems, groups of organisms show relationships with each other and their environment. One finds species associations showing interdependence and coevolution within ecosystems.Scientists often speak of the interrelatedness of living things.
- ecotaoism : In this web page this is the index page that links to the various chapters of the book. This is a new word, invented for use on the Internet, so that a search for this topic will be easy. It represents a combination of the fields of ecology, evolution and holism. The "way" that holistic systems have emerged is through the evolution of life within ecosystems. Ecotaoism is therefore the study of the evolution of life and holism within the context of ecosystems. Ecotaoism is a term used for an ancient way of life and idea expressed within the context of modern science. It is an environmental principle based on ecology and evolution. An investigation of existing principles, has shown that the ancient Chinese Taoist forces of yin and yang are similar to the idea that I present. From this context, I coined the term ecotaoism. By examining how two associated species evolve (co-evolution), one arrives at a holistic view of nature where interdependence between long-associated species within an ecosystem is dominant. Ecotaoism can be called the science that studies the evolution of interdependence within ecosystems. Taoism is an "appreciation of nature and "natural" behaviour". Having recognised this, one asks, "What is nature?" "Where is nature?" "What is the nature of nature?" The English title to my book is "Nature's Holism". That is, the essence of real holism as found in nature and not in the mind: the nature of holism belonging to nature. The philospohical term for this is ecotaoism. [2: Go to detail on Nature's Holism ]
- ecotechnology : technological innovations designed with emphasis upon the preservation of and compatibility with the natural environment.
- Ecotron: " The purpose of the [3: Ecotron ], is to establish simplified communities of terrestrial plants, animals and microbes as models of the real world." This serves as a tool to better test and understand the complexity of natural communities as compared with the simple laboratory or greenhouse experiment. 16 climate-controlled chambers enable replication statistical verification of experiments. [2: Paradigm chapter & ecotron ]; [3: centre for population biology ];
- Ediacaran : the last 100 million years of the Precambrian Period, represented by many extinct invertebrate forms.
- Einstein , Albert: (1879-1955). [3: A. Einstein ]; His theory of relativity (1905) was confirmed in 1919 when an aclipse of the sun showed that gravitation bends light. He formulated the equation E=mc 2 , energy equals mass times the speed of light squared. In 1916 he published his second, or general theory of relativity, using concepts of acceleration and gravitation to describe the universe in terms of curved space and time..[2: Kepler ]; [1: Copernicus ]; [2: Hubble ]; [2: Newton ]; [2: Herschel ]; [2: Galileo ]; [3: special theory of relativity, 1905 ]; [3: general theory of relativity in 1915];
- Elasmosaurus : a long necked marine reptile of the plesiosaur group, up to 12m long. They occurred mainly in the Jurassic and Cretaceous period and fed on fishes. This evolution of marine reptiles began in the Triassic period with the nothosaur reptiles and seems to have followed the evolution of holostean fishes and then teleost fishes.
- electron spin resonance : (ESR) atoms with unpaired electrons, when subject to a high magnetic field and microwave radiation produce a resonance phenomenon of specific frequencies that can be detected through spectroscopy.
- emergence & emergent properties : emergence is the denomination of something new (properties, entities) which could not be predicted from the elements constituting the preceding condition. Human consciousness is a good example of this. [3: emergence ] see also [2: vitalism ];
- Empedocles : (495?-435?) an early Greek philosopher. He saw all substances as made of air, earth, fire and water. [3: Empedocles ]
- empiricist : a person relying solely on experiment, regarding sense-data as valid information and so deriving knowledge from experience alone. Uses observation and experiment rather than theory.
- endangered species : at [3: defenders.org ]
- Energetics, Chemical: [3 : Chemical Energetics ]; Chemical Energetics (pdf) Teaching resource see chapters 08, 09 ]
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): an American government agency.
- Eocene Epoch : from 58 to 37 Mya. The second interval of the Tertiary Period of the Cenozoic Era [3: Eocene ]; [3: Cenozoic Era ].
- Eohippus : ancestor to the horse . [3: horse evolution image ]
- Epicurean : Epicurus (342?-270? B.C.), a Greek Philosopher. The word reflects his philosophy of devotion to pleasure, especially refined sensuous enjoyment and calmness of mind. The seeking of moderate pleasures and the avoidance of pain. Pleasure is the proper end of man's efforts, but also that true pleasure depends upon self-control, moderation, and honourable behaviour [3: Epicurus ].
- epistemological : epistemology, theory of the method or grounds of knowledge; the part of philosophy that deals with the origin, nature and limits of knowledge.
- erectus : [2: Homo
- ergaster : Homo
ergaster , A hominid species that may have evolved from
Homo habilis and
given rise to H. erectus. [3: H.
ergaster D2700 skull]; [2: ergaster
]; [3: National Goegraphic article ]. H.
ergaster and H.
erectus may be the same species. [3: Dmanisi
site on finds ]; [3: Scientific American ]; [3: lithics
]; [3: cranial differences ]; [3: Human Origins Program ];
- Eskimo : people who live near the arctic (north pole), including Greenland, Canada and northeastern Alaska. They have led this life for thousands of years. A large part of their sustenance comes from caribou deer and seals. Eskimos prefer to call themselves Inuit (Canada), Inupiat and Yupik (Alaska) and Yuit (Siberia & St. Lawrence Island). The ancestors of American Indians and Eskimos lived in central Asia about 10,000 years ago.
- e-text: Electronic texts, etext. Alex Catalogue of Electronic Texts . Also Cornell e-text links [3: e-texts at the Internet Public Library ]; [3: Project Gutenberg ]; [3: Philosophy Text Collection (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy) ]
- ethics : The science of morals in human conduct. Rules of conduct, moral principles. [2: morals ]
- Euclid (330?-270?): a Greek mathematician, called the father of geometry. His book, Elements, has probably had a greater influence on Scientific thinking than any other work. He lived during the time of the Egyptian leader Ptolemy 1 [3: Euclid ].
- eukaryote : organisms with cells with a plasma membrane, cytoplasm and that contain a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-bound organelles such as the mitochondria. [3: eukaryote ]; [3: Eukaryotes ]; [3: Characteristics of Procaryotic & Eucaryotic cells ]; [2: image - Taxonomic Kingdoms ]; [2: prokaryote ]
- Euphrates River : in south-western Asia, flowing from eastern Turkey, through Syria and then across Iraq.
- Eurasia: Of Europe and Asia.
- evolution : the physical and genetic change with time of living creatures, caused by the process of natural selection. The descent of all life forms from a common ancestor. Some take the definition of evolution to mean "a process whereby life arose from non-living matter and subsequently developed entirely by natural means." It is further claimed that this is the sense that Darwin gave to the word and event that this is the meaining it holds in the scientific community (Behe, 1998). This is however totally incorrect. Evolution is a process that occurs after the origin of life. To say that evolution prescribes how life arose is faulty logic. We can observe an evolutionary process from the fossil record, but no evidence is derived therefrom as to the origin of that life. Such origins still remain the domain of religious belief and not science. (Darwin: " How a nerve comes to be sensitive to light hardly concerns us more than how life itself originated.") Links in the same web page are all [2:]. [2: EVOLUTION: A quick overview ]; [2: TABLE OF THE GEOLOGICAL TIME SCALE ]; [2: human evolution ]; [3: What is evolution? ]; For a summary of [3: human evolution ] see the Washington State University learning module. [3: University Toronto Evolution Links & EVOLUTION REFERENCES ]; [3: Evolution update especially for students and teachers of Biology ]; [ 3: Evolution (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy) ]; [3: evolution history & theory ]; [3: A good lecture, Evolution and Taxonomy ] [3: Evolution, Science, and Society: a " white paper "]; [3: EVOLUTION links at Harvard ]; [2: Modern synthesis ]; [3: Jim Bindon's anthropology web materials ]; [3: Evolution & Philosophy ]; [3: Evolution and Systematics ]; [3: evolution happens ]; [3: The biology & evolution jump station ]; [3: Human Origins & Evolutionary Theory ]; [3: Evolution update - a good summary from many sites]; [3: Evidence of Evolution ]; [3: Evolutionary Biology ]; [3: definition ]; [3: pdf definition ]; [3: evolution of modern humans ]
- evolutionary systems: In Nature's Holism, I discuss and recognise only the evolution of living systems. I see evolution taking place at the molecular level. My definition of evolution includes adaptation. An organism adapts to its environment. I do not see the formation of a snow flake or on a larger scale a planet, or our solar system as evolutionary in the sense used in this book. For a wider discussion of evolution see Principia Cybernetica Web's article on evolutionary systems .
- extinction : When a species no longer exists, it is extinct. The Extinction Files is a good place to start on this topic. This BBC site also has information on evolution . There have been five [2: mass extinction events ] in the history of life. Humans are causing the sixth mass extinction event (Morell, 1999).[3: mass extinction image ]
- [ f ]
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